Oak Ridge Institute for Science & Education
OAKRIDGE INSTITUTE FOR SCIENCE AND EDUCATION:
A GUIDE TO RECORD SERIES SUPPORTING EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES CONDUCTED FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
This guide describes record series that pertain to epidemiologic and health-related studies at the Center for Epidemiologic Research (CER) of the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE). These records document the health and safety monitoring of employees and contract employees of the Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor organizations, the Manhattan Engineer District (MED), the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), and the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). History Associates Incorporated
(HAI) prepared this guide as part of DOE's Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project.
This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project, HAI's role in the project, the history of the DOE and its epidemiologic research program, and the history of the Oak Ridge Reservation and the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education. It also furnishes information on the procedures that HAI used to select, inventory, and describe pertinent records;
the methodology used to produce the guide; the arrangement of the record series descriptions; the location of the records; and procedures for accessing records repositories.
Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project
The Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project is indicative of DOE Secretary Hazel O'Leary's efforts to support openness initiatives in the areas of environment, safety, and health. In view of the importance of various administrative, organizational, and operational records to epidemiologic and health-related studies, a moratorium on the destruction of such records has been in effect since 1989.
In May 1992, each DOE and DOE contractor site was directed to prepare an inventory of all records useful for worker or community health-related studies. The office responsible for the coordination of all health-related activities throughout the DOE complex, the Office of Epidemiology and Health Surveillance (EH-42), provided each site with guidelines that defined epidemiologic records, provided instructions for describing record series, outlined the sites' role in
inventorying epidemiologic records, and discussed the relationship of the epidemiologic inventory to DOE's comprehensive records inventory effort. These inventories should be completed in 1995.
Role of HAI
In August of 1993, DOE selected HAI as its support services contractor for the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project. HAI, a professional records management,
archives, and historical research services firm incorporated in 1981, has provided records management, historical research, and technical support for a number of DOE projects. HAI's role in the project includes verifying the accuracy, comprehensiveness, and quality of existing inventories, providing guidance to site records management teams, and, in some cases, performing additional record inventories.
History of the DOE
The DOE is responsible for developing and administering national energy programs and policies. Authorized by Congress in 1977, the history of the department's predecessor agencies and functions dates back to 1942, with the establishment of the Manhattan Engineer District (MED) of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The MED spearheaded the development and manufacture of the first
atomic weapons during World War II. In 1946, Congress passed the Atomic Energy Act, which reorganized the MED into the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). Although the primary purpose of the AEC was to develop and manage the nation's expanding nuclear weapons production complex, the organization also reflected the nation's interest in developing broader commercial applications of atomic energy. (1)
For nearly three decades, the AEC directed the nation's nuclear program, from the development of nuclear weapons to the production of nuclear power. In 1974, Congress passed the Energy Reorganization Act, which split the AEC into the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). ERDA assumed responsibility for nuclear research and development and oversight of the nuclear weapons program, while the NRC licensed and regulated the industrial and commercial use of radionuclides and
nuclear power. ERDA also took charge of the energy research and development programs of other federal agencies, including the Bureau of Mines, the National Science Foundation, and the Interior Department's Office of Coal Research. The creation of ERDA represented the Nixon Administration's interest in establishing a centrally directed national energy policy. Events such as the 1973 Arab oil
embargo and the 1973-1974 price increases instituted by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) demonstrated the need to identify immediate energy needs and priorities and establish long range goals as a way to lessen the nation's dependency on foreign sources of energy. (2)
A shortage of natural gas during the winter of 1976-1977 further exposed the nation's vulnerability as an energy consumer. In response to the crisis, the Carter Administration urged Congress to reorganize ERDA and establish a cabinet-level organization to direct national energy policy. In August 1977, President Carter signed legislation creating the DOE. During the late 1980s, as Cold War tensions eased, the DOE restructured its priorities around nuclear waste management, environmental restoration, conservation, and the development
of new energy sources. (3)
History of the Oak Ridge Sites
Oak Ridge, Tennessee, was one of three sites established by the Manhattan Project during World War II to develop the first atomic weapons. Selected on September 19, 1942, the Clinton Engineer Works (CEW), later called the Oak Ridge Reservation, was the site of three major production facilities which were known by the code-names X-10, Y-12, and K-25. The Clinton Laboratories, which later evolved into the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), housed the country's first full-scale graphite reactor. Known then as the Clinton Pile, the graphite
reactor provided irradiated uranium slugs from which plutonium and other nuclear fuels could be separated at the X-10 pilot plant. The Y-12 Plant produced enriched uranium-235 by means of electromagnetic separation, and the K-25 plant, also known as the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP), produced enriched uranium-235 by a gaseous diffusion process. (4)
The Oak Ridge National Laboratory
The Clinton Laboratories, the first research facilities built as part of the CEW in 1942, housed the graphite reactor and chemical processing facilities. In 1948, the Clinton Laboratories were reorganized and became known as ORNL. Although ORNL continued to process fuel for nuclear weapons and develop new processing technologies, its mission also expanded to include the production of
radioisotopes for commercial and medical uses, research into the biomedical effects of radiation, and the operation of other experimental reactors. Currently, the laboratory operates as a multidisciplinary facility, conducting research and development in conjunction with government, private, and academic institutions. In recent years, ORNL has focused its research on magnetic fusion, nuclear fission, biological and environmental research, conservation,
renewable and fossil energy, and the physical sciences. (5)
The Y-12 Plant
Originally, the Y-12 Plant used the electromagnetic process to separate the fissionable uranium isotope, uranium-235, from the more plentiful but stable uranium-238 isotope. After the war, when this process was discontinued, the Y-12 Plant's mission changed to manufacturing and developmental engineering, focusing on nuclear weapons components. The Y-12 Plant developed and fabricated test
hardware for weapons, processed source and special nuclear materials, provided fabrication support for other Oak Ridge Reservation Plants, and supported other federal agencies. Currently, the plant's mission is to serve as a key technology center for the development and demonstration of unique materials, components, and services of importance to DOE and the nation. The Y-12 Plant accomplishes its mission through the manufacture, reclamation, and storage of
nuclear materials; the construction of components for the nation's defense capabilities; and the support of national security programs. (6)
The K-25 Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant
The K-25 facility began in May 1943 with the construction of a massive building to house the gaseous diffusion process. The plant reached its full operational capacity by August 1945. The late 1940s and early 1950s witnessed the expansion of the K-25 site in terms of both physical size and breadth of research and production goals. The facility also developed new high-technology enrichment programs, such as the 1960s Gas Centrifuge and the 1988 Advanced Laser Isotope Separations (AVLIS) processes. In 1985, gaseous diffusion operations ceased and were placed on standby. Presently, the mission of K-25 is
to spearhead environmental clean-up and restoration, not only at K-25 but throughout the entire Oak Ridge Reservation. Included in this mission is the Environmental Restoration Program, which oversees the identification and remediation of environmental contamination throughout the complex. (7)
History of ORISE
After World War II, the University of Tennessee (UT) appointed a committee to investigate the possibility of a closer relationship between the Oak Ridge research facilities and academia. Although a branch of the UT graduate school existed at Clinton Laboratories, the committee hoped to engender a more comprehensive cooperative venture. In December 1945, the University hosted a conference of representatives from Oak Ridge sites, the MED, the Tennessee
Valley Authority (TVA), and the science departments of several southern universities. Participants formed an interim committee and made plans for a second meeting in Oak Ridge later that month. At that meeting, representatives of several universities and medical schools in the region agreed to form the Oak Ridge Institute of Nuclear Studies (ORINS). In October 1946, ORINS became an
official nonprofit corporation of fourteen associated universities, each agreeing to contribute $5000 a year for three years. (8)
In 1948, as part of its educational mission, ORINS established the first formalized AEC training program, the Oak Ridge Radioactive Isotope handling course. ORINS also offered courses on isotope technology, radiation biology, radiation training for firefighting personnel, the handling of radioisotopes by physicians, and radiation protection. From the outset, the interests of ORINS extended beyond the areas of research and education in nuclear physics. In 1948,
for example, ORINS assumed responsibility for the Oak Ridge clinical research facility at the request of the Oak Ridge Operations Office's Division of Biology and Medicine. With the establishment of the American Museum of Atomic Energy in 1949, ORINS became the national leader in public education for science and technology. In its educational role, ORINS administered the AEC Fellowship Program from 1950 to 1973 and sponsored the nationwide presentation of President
Eisenhower's "Atoms for Peace" program in 1956. By the 1960s, ORINS included forty associated universities. (9)
Also by the mid-1960s, participants in ORINS recognized that the
organization's range of activities had expanded well beyond education in nuclear science and technology and its title no longer seemed appropriate. In 1965, ORINS members voted to change their name to the Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU). In 1992, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) was established for the enhancement of science and mathematics education, basic and applied biomedical research on human health and disease, as well as the evaluation and analysis of policies and regulations affecting energy
and environmental issues. Managed by ORAU, ORISE also operates the Radiation Internal Dose Information Center, the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center and Training Site, the Center for Human Reliability Studies, and the Center for Epidemiologic Research (CER). CER also contributes information to the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR). A catalog describing the CEDR program is available from the DOE Office of Epidemiologic Studies. (10)
History of DOE Epidemiologic Research
MED Health Studies
Interest in occupational safety surrounding the handling of fissionable materials predated the Manhattan Project and became a priority during the war years. The MED developed safety protocols, health monitoring procedures, and exposure standards that provided a framework for health physics and industrial hygiene practices. The data collected in the development of these programs furnished a foundation for current epidemiologic research. Among the MED sites
and educational institutions that made significant contributions toward
understanding the effects of radiation upon humans and establishing acceptable
occupational exposure standards were the University of California, Berkeley, the
University of Chicago's Metallurgical Laboratory (Met Lab), the University of
Rochester, and the Los Alamos National Laboratory.
The University of California
In 1936, Ernest O. Lawrence, a physicist at the University of California,
established the Radiation Laboratory, now known as the Lawrence Berkeley
Laboratory. This laboratory centered around the cyclotron, an instrument
developed by Lawrence which produced radioactive isotopes by bombarding atomic
nuclei with a beam of high-speed particles. Recognizing the potential uses of
radioactive substances in biology and medicine, Lawrence established a Health
Physics section in the Radiation Laboratory. The laboratory conducted
experimental work, both on animal and human subjects, using radiation to develop
cancer therapies. Although these experiments continued during World War II, the
focus of the Health Physics section of the Radiation Laboratory, now under the
administration of the MED, turned to the health issues related to the industrial
production and handling of fissionable materials. Areas of concern included the
health effects of the inhalation, ingestion, and absorption of these nuclear
agents. As the Manhattan Project progressed, the Radiation Laboratory joined
the Universities of Chicago and Rochester in studying the biological effects of
plutonium, a highly toxic radioactive substance discovered by Glenn Seaborg in
the Radiation Laboratory in 1941. (11)
The University of Chicago
In 1942, the University of Chicago's Met Lab, now known as the Argonne
National Laboratory (ANL), conducted the world's first nuclear chain reaction, a
crucial step in the development of the first atomic weapons. The Met Lab also
led the development of a program to monitor the health of workers exposed
routinely to radioactive substances. This concern for worker health resulted in
the establishment of a Health Division, which, under Robert S. Stone, strongly
influenced health and safety practices throughout the entire MED. Stone,
formerly of the University of California Radiation Laboratory, organized the
Health Division around areas of medicine, health physics, and radiation biology.
Met Lab health physicists developed instruments and laboratory tests for
monitoring and measuring radiation exposure and deposition. In this capacity,
the Met Lab pioneered the use of pocket dosimeters, film badges, and urinalysis.
Monitoring practices established and advised by the Met Lab not only influenced
safety at MED sites but also determined the kinds of data collected to determine
worker health. (12)
The University of Rochester
The University of Rochester pursued research under a contract with the U.S.
Army Corps of Engineers. In 1943, Stafford L. Warren, Chief of the Division of
Radiology in the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry,
became a consultant to the Manhattan Project and later assumed the position of
Chief of the Manhattan Project Medical Section. Under Warren, the University of
Rochester advised MED sites on employee health protection issues, developed
instrumentation to monitor and measure health hazards, and provided technical
support. University of Rochester physicians conducted medical examinations of
MED personnel and maintained corresponding records. Moreover, the university
conducted an extensive investigation of uranium toxicity within the MED complex.
After the war, the University continued its biomedical research through the AEC
Atomic Energy Project (AEP). (13)
Another MED facility involved in the development of worker health and safety
practices was the Los Alamos site, originally known as Project Y, and later
called the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Established by Robert J.
Oppenheimer in 1942, Los Alamos contained four research and technical divisions
and an administrative division responsible for health surveillance, procurement,
and patents. The health group, under Louis H. Hempelmann, initially performed
simple monitoring tasks but, as greater quantities of plutonium arrived for
weapons development, assumed responsibility for defining occupational and health
standards, sponsoring lectures, and codifying safety guidelines. Moreover, the
health group attempted to keep complete records of the Los Alamos work force,
including hazard studies, exposure logs, accident reports, and medical test
results. In 1947, Los Alamos organized a new health division to examine
radiological safety, improve health physics and industrial hygiene procedures,
and monitor radiation exposures at weapons testing sites. (14)
DOE Health and Mortality Studies
AEC Feasibility Study
The early MED worker health studies set the stage for health monitoring
practices and data collection by the AEC and its successor organizations. In
1964, the AEC initiated a feasibility study to evaluate the use of plant
personnel and other records as the basis for long-term studies of health and
mortality among its work force. The AEC Feasibility Study focused on uranium
workers at Mallinckrodt's Chemical Works plants in St. Louis and Weldon Spring,
Missouri, and the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) at Fernald, Ohio. The
University of Colorado conducted the study and concluded in a series of internal
reports that the records provided a suitable foundation for epidemiologic
AEC Pilot Study
In 1965, the AEC mounted a five-year pilot study that extended its inquiry
to the feasibility of using plant records to investigate the health and
mortality of workers employed at contractor and former MED facilities (including
Mallinckrodt, Fernald, Hanford, Oak Ridge, Harshaw Chemical, and the Met Lab)
and determine if any adverse health effects were related to their occupations.
The study also questioned the suitability of existing records for use in studies
designed to estimate the upper bound of the cancer risk associated with exposure
to low-level radiation. The AEC selected Thomas F. Mancuso, M.D., of the
University of Pittsburgh as the project director of the AEC Pilot Study.
Consequently, the project became known informally as the Mancuso Study. (16)
For the study, Mancuso located and identified original records at the
Hanford and Oak Ridge sites and at offsite federal and other record
repositories. In addition, through agreements with the Social Security
Administration (SSA) and state vital records offices, Mancuso obtained
demographic information necessary to determine the vital status of the workers,
that is, whether workers were still living at the time of the survey. Death
certificates served as the primary source for this determination. As the
project progressed, Mancuso found that the data did not meet his initial
expectations but required further editing, verification, and other processing to
assure the comprehensiveness and epidemiologic validity of his data analyses.
During this period, Mancuso also expanded the data set to include AEC facilities
at Los Alamos, Rocky Flats, and the Mound Laboratory. (17)
AEC Health and Mortality Study
In 1970, Mancuso, under a contract with the AEC, initiated the AEC Health
and Mortality Study. With his colleague, Dr. Barkev S. Sanders, a former
statistician and actuary from the SSA and the Public Health Service, Mancuso
analyzed the data collected in the pilot study in terms of worker longevity.
Beginning in 1971, Mancuso and his colleagues routinely published the results of
their analyses in annual progress reports to the AEC, although they did not
submit their findings for review and publication in professional or medical
In 1974, Dr. Samuel Milham of the Washington State Department of Social and
Health Services reported increased mortality within the Hanford work force from
several cancer types. His findings were part of a broader examination of
occupational mortality throughout Washington state from 1950 to 1971. Milham's
study encouraged Mancuso to conduct his own analysis of mortality at Hanford,
the results of which were published in 1977. Mancuso's results, in which he
purported to show increased risks for several types of cancer with increased
radiation doses, received substantial criticism. Other epidemiologists and
biostatisticians reanalyzed Mancuso's data set and repudiated many of his
conclusions, with the exception of his findings concerning the elevated risk of
multiple myeloma in individuals exposed to low-level radiation. (19)
In 1975, ERDA decided not to renew Mancuso's status as the prime contractor
for the Health and Mortality Study. At the beginning of fiscal year 1978, ERDA
transferred specific aspects of the HMS to ORAU, LANL, and the Hanford
Environmental Health Foundation (HEHF) and Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL)
at Hanford. ORAU epidemiologists, with the support of the University of North
Carolina School of Public Health, were placed in charge of data analyses for
uranium workers at Oak Ridge, Paducah, Portsmouth, Fernald, Mallinckrodt,
Niagara Frontier sites, and, later, the Savannah River Plant. In addition, ORAU
was assigned responsibility for the management of the DOE/SSA interface for the
three sites and for related data collection, especially the retrieval,
processing, and storage of death certificates. LANL assumed responsibility for
DOE's National Plutonium Workers Study and for other site studies of workers
routinely monitored for exposure to plutonium. HEHF/PNL epidemiologists
continued to collect, process, and analyze data associated with the health and
mortality of workers at the Hanford site. (20)
In 1979, DOE authorized ORAU to expand the scope of the HMS to include all
active and inactive workers throughout the entire Energy complex. Under this
phase of the HMS, approximately 600,000 workers from 76 sites were eligible for
eventual inclusion in the study. Of this population, 360,000 workers are the
basis for additional studies conducted by ORAU, LANL, and Hanford. Since the
expansion of the HMS, ORAU has conducted the Five Rem Study, which examined
workers who were exposed to five or more rems of radiation in the course of a
single employment year. It also launched the Oak Ridge Facility Comparison
(ORFCOM) Project, which analyzed the relationship of occupational, lifestyle,
and health variables among specific occupational cohorts. (21)
In 1990, a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between DOE and the Department
of Health and Human Services (HHS) transferred responsibility for the management
and conduct of energy-related epidemiologic research to HHS's Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Under the terms of this MOU, the National
Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), a part of CDC, is
responsible for conducting the major worker health studies for DOE sites. (22)
Records described in this guide are located at the CER at 210 Badger Road,
Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 37830. Within the CER, most of the records are stored in
a secured vault area. In addition to a central storage area, the vault also has
separate rooms to store birth certificates, Personnel Security Questionnaire
(PSQ) forms, correspondence, electronic records, and other research materials.
Electronic records are located in offices on the second floor. CER
administrative records and other associated documents of the CER are stored in
unsecured rooms throughout the building.
Since this is an access restricted facility, arrangements must be made in
advance for permission to enter the building and review the records. Although
the records housed at CER are unclassified, many are protected by the Privacy
Act of 1974. For permission to access the records, please contact:
Director, Center for Epidemiologic Research
210 Badger Road
Oak Ridge, TN 37830
Telephone Number: (615) 576-3142
In January 1995, HAI made an initial site visit to CER. HAI interviewed CER
personnel responsible for the records, toured the records storage facilities,
and determined staffing needs for the inventory project. Later that month, HAI
returned and inventoried the records identified during the initial site visit.
HAI staff inventoried approximately 2,167 cubic feet of records, 200 electronic
files, and 708 cartridges of microfilm. After completing the inventory, HAI
staff analyzed and organized the inventory forms into record series, wrote
record series descriptions, and linked related electronic and paper records.
In accordance with the guidelines in Information Required by the
Department of Energy for Epidemiologic and Health Studies, DOE developed a
list of 123 (later revised to 86) data elements to assign to record series
descriptions. In general, the data elements consist of terms pertaining to
contractor organizations, individual employees, industrial hygiene activities,
and facility characteristics that help describe the major information contained
in a record series. The HAI team, as part of its inventory and description of
records, determined which data elements were pertinent to each record series for
both active and inactive records. A list of the data elements is included in
Appendix C. Please note that the list is arranged topically, not numerically.
This guide reflects the status of records as of January 1995, when they were
reviewed and inventoried by HAI. It contains series descriptions for all of the
records stored in the CER vault, as well as related records stored in offices
and smaller storage areas. Included are records collected for studies conducted
by ORAU and ORISE for the AEC Health and Mortality Study and for the University
of Rochester radiation exposure studies conducted for the MED and AEC Health
Division; PSQs and bioassay results; and mortality records collected by the
Death Certificate Retrieval Office at ORAU. Electronic records inventoried
include databases and raw data, working, and analysis files. HAI did not
inventory files that are available through DOE's CEDR database. HAI
cross-referenced electronic files and related paper records when appropriate.
To facilitate research, HAI grouped the record series descriptions into four
categories. A brief explanation of each category is provided below:
This section contains information relating to employees at sites operated by
the DOE, its predecessor agencies, and contractors which were collected for use
in epidemiologic studies. Record series generally consist of employee rosters,
medical files, employment records, exposure histories, injury and accident
reports, and correspondence.
This section documents studies conducted or administered by ORISE. Record
series include employee work and health history information, interview and
questionnaire results, and computer-generated data reports.
Record series in this section document the administrative and data
collection functions of ORISE. It contains series descriptions of
correspondence, reading, and subject files; death certificates collected by the
Death Certificate Retrieval Office; and PSQ forms collected from several sites.
IV. Electronic Records
This section pertains to CER electronic records maintained online and on
tape. Electronic data are organized into raw data, working, or analysis files.
Within these categories, the files are grouped alphabetically by site and study
name. Files that contain a large variety of data from several sites were placed
into a general category.
Raw data files contain data which have not been manipulated by researchers.
CER's raw data files contain dosimetry data submitted in electronic format by
the site contractors. CER maintains the raw data files on nine-track magnetic
tape reels in an EBCDIC file format. Working files are those containing data
which have been manipulated and may be a combination of several raw data files.
CER's working files contain employment and personal information for workers at
DOE facilities. All working files are maintained online in an ORACLE database,
using an IBM 9221 mainframe computer. Analysis files contain data on which
study results were based. They may contain a combination of personal,
employment, morbidity, mortality, and exposure information. Analysis files are
maintained by CER in a Statistical Analysis System (SAS) format on nine-track
DATA ITEMS IN RECORD SERIES DESCRIPTIONS
Due to the differences between textual and electronic records, HAI collected
different data for each of these record formats. Below are listed the data
items, with corresponding explanations, included in textual record series
descriptions. A similar list for electronic records series descriptions is
Textual Record Series Descriptions
Series descriptions for records in sections I-III and the first half of IV
contain sixteen major data items. These include series title, inclusive dates,
location, active or inactive status, access restrictions, accession or other
identification number, volume, and container numbers. Also provided is
information concerning the type of media used, suitability of the records for
scanning, physical condition of the records, availability of finding aids,
record arrangement, the originating office, duplication, and disposition
Data items are listed alphabetically and further explained below.
The records described in this guide are not classified for national security
reasons. However, medical and other employee records containing personal
information are protected under a DOE Privacy Act System of Records and may not
be available for public inspection. For information about accessing these
records, contact the Freedom of Information and Privacy Act Office at Oak Ridge,
(615) 576-1216. HAI has indicated which record series may fall under the
Privacy Act. (23)
Since access to the ORISE facility is controlled, visitors must receive
prior permission to enter the Badger Road facility.
Accession/Other Identification Number
When available, HAI furnished accession or series numbers. However, most of
the records did not have identification numbers.
The arrangement of the record series, for example, chronological,
alphabetical, or subject, is described when possible.
HAI judged the physical condition of record series, categorizing them as
either good, fair, or poor. Records are rated poor when they contain aged and
faded typewritten originals or photocopies, illegible and faded handwritten
copies, or badly torn or damaged documents. Records are rated fair when
documents are older but are not too damaged or faded to be read or viewed
clearly. Records are rated good when they contain current photocopies, well-kept
originals on quality paper, and clear, dark print copies.
In this field, HAI has provided the location number of records stored in the
vault. Location numbers are prefixed with letters denoting steel shelves (SS),
filing cabinets (FC), book cases (BC), lateral files (LF), card catalogs (CC),
wall shelves (WS), and wall cabinets (WC). HAI recorded the type of shelving,
the range of shelves, and the shelf number and has also indicated when records
were stacked individually on tables or in boxes on the floor. ORISE has a
location guide to the records in the vault, which shows the arrangement of the
shelves with location numbers.
The data elements that HAI considered pertinent to the record series are
listed in numerical order. The numbers correspond to the data elements list.
None of the records inventoried for this guide have been scheduled according
to the standard record schedules, including the National Archives and Records
Administration's (NARA) General Records Schedules (GRS) or the DOE Records
Schedules (DOERS); therefore, HAI described the records as "unscheduled."
A moratorium on the destruction of records relevant to epidemiologic and
health-related studies has been in effect since 1989.
Some records may exist elsewhere in a duplicate form, such as on magnetic
tape or a database file. If the exact location of the duplication is known,
HAI has provided this information. For all other cases, "unknown" has
HAI has provided information as to whether an index or other reference
guide, called a "finding aid," exists for each record series. The
Vault Inventory Database is the principal finding aid for inactive records in
the CER vault. The CER Program Databases serve as finding aids for CER
reference collections and reading files.
Information on the physical location of the record series and an indication
of the records' status (as active or inactive) are found here. Active records
are necessary for conducting the current business of an office and, as such,
must be maintained in office space. Inactive records may be housed in temporary
storage facilities until they are either destroyed or sent to NARA for permanent
retention. HAI has indicated the custodial office abbreviation and room number
where records are currently being stored.
The physical nature of the records, such as paper, microfiche, or microfilm,
HAI has provided the originating office of the organization (e.g., ORISE or
specific AEC contractors) under this heading. Researchers should be aware that
the office or organization which created the records may not be the entity that
controls access to them. Access to the records is controlled by the office in
whose custody the records reside.
HAI has indicated when records are suitable or not suitable for scanning.
In instances where records are not clearly suitable, HAI has provided
descriptions of the materials that may prove problematic for some scanners.
This statement may not be accurate in the future as the state-of-the-art in
scanning technology continues to evolve.
The series description provides, in a narrative format, essential
information concerning the content of the records, the reasons for their
creation, and the manner in which they were used. In some cases, the series
descriptions contain cross-references to related textual and electronic records
described elsewhere in the guide.
Title and Inclusive Dates
Each record series description begins with a title that reflects the broad
content of the record series as well as the inclusive dates. HAI used the
descriptive titles given by their creators. When descriptive or accurate titles
were not provided, HAI assigned appropriate titles.
The approximate volume of the record series is provided in cubic feet or
number of microfilm cassettes.
Electronic File Descriptions
Descriptions for electronic records are found in the second half of Section
IV. The electronic record series descriptions contain ten major data items,
some of which are the same as, or similar to, those in the textual records
series descriptions. These include file type, file name, location, tape number,
access restriction, name of the originating office, and disposition authority.
Also included are data items pertaining to characteristics unique to electronic
record format, including file type, hardware/software used to support the file,
and name of office/program supported.
Data items are listed alphabetically and further explained below.
Please refer to the information provided under this heading for textual
The data elements that HAI considered pertinent to the record series are
listed in numerical order. The numbers correspond to the data elements list.
None of the records in this guide have been scheduled according to the GRS
or DOERS; HAI has described these records as "unscheduled." A
moratorium on the destruction of records relevant to epidemiologic and
health-related studies has been in effect since 1989.
The file description provides, in a narrative format, essential
informational concerning the content of electronic files. Other data includes
the number of records, variables in the files, and purpose of the files. In
some cases, the file descriptions contain cross-references to related textual
records described elsewhere in the guide.
This is the name given to the file at the time it was created.
Each entry indicates whether the files are raw data, working, or analysis
HAI has provided names of the hardware and software used to support the
electronic files. All files at CER are accessed using an IBM 9221 mainframe
Information on the physical location of the files and an indication of their
status, active or inactive, are found here. Records are listed by custodial
office abbreviation, then by room number.
This is the office or program which used the files for epidemiologic studies
or other purposes.
This is the name of the office which created the files.
(1) Richard G. Hewlett and Oscar E. Anderson, A History of the United
States Atomic Energy Commission, Vol. 1, The New World, 1939-1946
(University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1962); Richard G.
Hewlett and Francis Duncan, A History of the Atomic Energy Commission,
Vol. 2, Atomic Shield, 1947-1952 (University Park: Pennsylvania State
University Press, 1969); Charles W. Johnson and Charles O. Jackson, City
Behind a Fence: Oak Ridge Tennessee, 1942-1946 (Knoxville: University of
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(10) For the CEDR Catalog, contact Office of Epidemiologic Studies, EH-62,
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(11) Human Radiation Experiments, 108-110; Barton C. Hacker, The
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(12) Human Radiation Experiments, 47-49; Hacker, The Dragon's
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(21) "The Hanford Health and Mortality Study," unpublished DOE
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(23) U.S. Department of Energy, Privacy Act of 1974; Publication of
System Notice, Federal Register 47, No. 64 (April 2, 1982).