Many major Federal laws (e.g., Atomic Energy Act (AEA), Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA)), Executive Orders, regulations and various other drivers influence the use of institutional controls at DOE sites. Some drivers directly authorize or require the use of institutional controls, while others do not. DOE also uses institutional controls when no specific statutory requirement exists to supplement active remediation, pollution control, public and resource protection, and physical security, or to bolster the integrity of engineered remedies. DOE and its predecessor agencies have conducted activities for over 50 years, using land ownership and access control, environmental monitoring and surveillance, and other tools to support protection efforts at operational and inactive facilities, including radioactive waste burial grounds.
DOE sites commonly need and use institutional controls for programs and activities related to the following:
- radiation protection of workers, the public and the environment,
- radioactive waste management and disposal,
- environmental protection,
- environmental restoration and cleanup
- cultural resources management and historic preservation,
- operational continuity and security, and
- property or legacy management and stewardship.
Institutional controls should be integrated into the Environmental Management System (EMS) implementation framework to help protect the public and the environment in accordance with the requirements of DOE O 450.1, Environmental Protection Program .
Related Documents and References
DOE Comments on Rulemakings